Number of misconduct cases
Npof investigates research misconduct. The graphs show how many allegation reports (including case submissions) Npof has received since it was established in 2020.
Annual numbers of cases
The figures show how many reports (including submissions) Npof has received each year.
Initiation of cases (2020–present)
The allegation reports investigated by Npof can be initiated by the entities responsible for research (research principals), individuals or Npof itself.
Categories of misconduct
Npof investigates three forms of research misconduct: plagiarism, falsification and fabrication. Allegations reported (including cases submitted) since 2020 are shown below. Npof’s investigations sometimes reveal that the alleged offences reported do not fit into the definitions of plagiarism, falsification and fabrication that we apply. The allegations eventually investigated by Npof may therefore differ from those reported. The categories of alleged offences examined since 2020 are listed below.
After completing a case investigation, Npof decides whether research misconduct has taken place or not, and finds the researcher(s) in question guilty or innocent. In the statistics, a decision in which one or more of the alleged offenders are found guilty and the rest innocent counts as a “guilty” decision.