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Here, we quantify the cases received, investigated and settled by the National Board for Assessment of Research Misconduct (Npof). These statistics are constantly updated.

Number of misconduct cases

Npof investigates research misconduct. The graphs show how many allegation reports (including case submissions) Npof has received since it was established in 2020.

77 have led to investigation
31 have been dismissed

Annual numbers of cases

The figures show how many reports (including submissions) Npof has received each year.


Initiation of cases (2020–present)

The allegation reports investigated by Npof can be initiated by the entities responsible for research (research principals), individuals or Npof itself.

58 cases have been initiated by a research principal


90 allegations have been reported by individuals


0 cases have been initiated by Npof

Categories of misconduct

Npof investigates three forms of research misconduct: plagiarism, falsification and fabrication. Allegations reported (including cases submitted) since 2020 are shown below. Npof’s investigations sometimes reveal that the alleged offences reported do not fit into the definitions of plagiarism, falsification and fabrication that we apply. The allegations eventually investigated by Npof may therefore differ from those reported. The categories of alleged offences examined since 2020 are listed below.

Our decisions

After completing a case investigation, Npof decides whether research misconduct has taken place or not, and finds the researcher(s) in question guilty or innocent. In the statistics, a decision in which one or more of the alleged offenders are found guilty and the rest innocent counts as a “guilty” decision.

“Innocent” and “guilty” decisions since 2020

“Innocent” decisions

“Guilty” decisions